Repetition of discredited arguments – parroting PRATT.
|If you’ve heard it all before, and it sounds simple and clear-cut but feels fishy, it’s probably a red flag.|
How to recognise this tactic
In this tactic, people persist in repeating claims that have been shown over and over to have no foundation. Look for slogans, sweeping statements or claims that look as though they could easily be refuted. Those who use this tactic pick arguments that look reasonable at first sight or are popularly thought to be true. This tactic is simply a form of lying, but when you’re not expert in a field, it’s hard to spot arguments that have been debunked by the evidence.
Why do people use this tactic?
People who use this tactic ignore the fact that their arguments have been falsified (usually over and over), and hope that their audience is unaware . This is usually because they have no arguments that are supported by evidence. They need to resort to erroneous beliefs that may have been current in the past, but are no longer valid.
What’s wrong with this tactic
Repetition of discredited arguments is dishonest. The original perpetrators nearly always know that their arguments have been discredited, but choose to mislead others by ignoring the evidence against them. Unfortunately, the arguments are then often parroted over and over again by those who have been taken in.
What to do when confronted by this tactic
As always, be skeptical. Expect to see evidence, not simply declarations or referrals to the utterances of authority figures. Ask how the arguments fit in with the prevailing views of the scientific community. If they are significantly different, find out why. Do a web search to see if the arguments have been consistently debunked by reliable evidence.
Variations and related tactics
Discredited arguments are sometimes referred to as PRATT – points refuted a thousand times (or previously refuted a thousand times) – hence the ‘parroting PRATT’ label for this tactic.
When it’s used multiple times in quick succession, it becomes a Gish Gallop. In this form, the perpetrators attempt to pile up so many debunked arguments and logical inconsistencies that anyone arguing against them cannot answer them all in the time available.
- The anti-fluoridation movement continues to promote discredited arguments against fluoridation of water supplies. The science does not support these arguments. For example, the scare tactic that fluoride is used as rat poison does not hold water. Everything (even pure water) is poisonous in a large enough dose. In 2007, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council conducted a systematic review which concluded that water fluoridation is both effective and safe.
- Many creationists repeat discredited arguments. In fact, the Gish Gallop was named after creationist Duane Gish. More sophisticated creationists realise that this tactic is dishonest, and caution their followers against using it. Here’s a humorous look at how it operates from NonStampCollector:
- As I wrote this post, The Australian newspaper published an article (paywall) by the usual climate-denier suspects (Bob Carter et al) which trots out some well-worn PRATT. Most prominent is the claim that global temperatures have not risen for 15 years, a claim that is easily refuted, and has been many times. The PRATT repertoire of climate deniers is well documented at Skeptical Science. The most prolific advocate of the tactic is probably Christopher Monckton. (Update 28 May 2012: Skeptical Science reports here on a new Gish Gallop from Bob Carter.)
- Update 2013/05/08: Skeptical Science now has an excellent resource which lists the popular climate-denier PRATT and offers one-line or one-paragraph rebuttals.